Research on tribal communities, their customs, languages and rights facilitated by Indian universities: PhD theses published on Shodhganga (public access)

To find specific information, combine “shodhganga” with search word combinations of special interest in the above search window: e.g. “shodhganga ethnobotany adivasi”, “shodhganga tribal marriage custom”, “shodhganga tribal schools”, “shodhganga Kondh”, “shodhganga bastar village”, “shodhganga tribal Maharashtra”, “shodhganga tribal music”, “shodhganga west ghats biodiversity”, “shodhganga Forest Rights Act FRA community”, “shodhganga Indian constitution ST tribal protection”, “shodhganga endangered tribal language”, “shodhganga vulnerable tribal community”.

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The Shodhganga@INFLIBNET Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access.

Source:  Shodhganga
URL: http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in
Date visited:  11 December 2018

Tips | Find publishing details for Shodhganga search results: Descriptions and associated PDF files available for browsing and downloading  (Shodhganga) >>

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Kondh Adivasis farmers known for their sophisticated practices of agro-forestry: Koraput region, “one of the world’s great biodiversity hotspots” – Odisha

In Kaliponga village, farmer Ramdas sows Bt and HT cotton a few days after dousing the land with glyphosate, a broad spectrum herbicide. Photo: Chitrangada Choudhury >>

CHITRANGADA CHOUDHURY – ANIKET AGA, counterpunch.org, 8 October 2019 | Read the full story here >>

Pirikaka is a Kondh Adivasi farmer in her 40s.  Every year, for over two decades, she would prepare a hill slope for dongar chaas – literally, ‘mountain farming’ (shifting cultivation). Following traditions honed by the region’s farmers over centuries, Pirikaka would sow mixed plots of heirloom seeds which she had saved from family harvests the previous year. These would yield a basket of food crops: millets like mandia and kangu, pulses like pigeon pea and black gram, as well as traditional varieties of long beans, niger seeds and sesame.

This July, for the first time, Pirikaka switched to Bt cotton. That was the time we met her, sowing the dark pink, chemical-doused seeds on a hill slope at her village in Bishamakatak block. The penetration of cotton into the shifting cultivation practices of the Adivasis was striking, making us ask her about this switch. “Other crops like turmeric also give money,” admits Pirikaka. “But nobody is doing that. Everyone is leaving mandia [millet]… and going after cotton.” […]

Rayagada, with close to 1 million people, is a part of the Koraput region, one of the world’s great biodiversity hotspots, and a historical area of rice diversification. A 1959 survey of the Central Rice Research Institute showed the region still had over 1,700 rice varieties at the time. It’s down to around 200 now. Some researchers believe it to be a birthplace of rice cultivation.

The Kondh Adivasis here, largely subsistence farmers, are known for their sophisticated practices of agro-forestry. Even today, many Kondh families across the region’s emerald-green terraced fields and mountainside farms, cultivate a dizzying array of paddy and millet varieties, pulses and vegetables. Surveys by Living Farms, a non-profit in Rayagada, have recently documented 36 millet varieties and 250 forest foods.

Most Adivasi farmers here work on individual or common property farms ranging from 1 to 5 acres in size.

Their seeds are largely nurtured and shared within the community, using almost no synthetic fertilisers or other agri-chemicals (also called agro-chemicals).

Yet, cotton has become the second-most cultivated crop in Rayagada after paddy, overtaking millets – the premier traditional food crops of the region. It covers a fifth of the 428,947 acres under cultivation in this district. Cotton’s swift expansion is reshaping this land and people steeped in agro-ecological knowledge. […]

The traditional knowledge of farm-related as well as non-farm occupations are rapidly disappearing,” he said. In village after village, there is no potter, no carpenter, no weaver. All household goods are bought from the market, and most of these – from the pitcher to the mat – are made of plastics, imported from faraway towns. Bamboos have disappeared from most villages, and with them bamboo crafts. They are now substituted by wood from the forest and expensive concrete. Even for erecting a pole or making a fence, villagers have to cut trees from the forest. The more people depend on the market due to the lure of profit, the more the environment degrades.” […]

Source: Sowing the Seeds of the Climate Crisis in Odisha
URL: https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/10/08/sowing-the-seeds-of-the-climate-crisis-in-odisha/
Date visited: 9 October 2019


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Research the above issues with the help of Shodhganga: A reservoir of theses from universities all over India, made available under Open Access >>

Publications on the above issues may be found here (title descriptions and libraries):

Search for an item in libraries near you:
WorldCat.org >>

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Posted in Adivasi, Cultural heritage, Eastern region, Ecology and environment, Economy and development, Figures, census and other statistics, Globalization, Health and nutrition, Homes and utensils, Maps, Modernity, Names and communities, Organizations, Photos and slideshows, Press snippets | Tagged | Comments Off on Kondh Adivasis farmers known for their sophisticated practices of agro-forestry: Koraput region, “one of the world’s great biodiversity hotspots” – Odisha

Audio | CBC Unreserved on “Decolonizing the classroom: Is there space for Indigenous knowledge in academia?” – Canada

“A plan to take away our future indigeneity [which] almost worked” – Kwagiulth master carver and artist Carey Newman and creator of the Carey Newman on his collection of memories >>

Beyond Orange Shirt Day: Documenting the lasting impact of Indian Residential Schools

Kyle Muzyka · Posted: Oct 04, 2019 | View more photos and listen to this or other CBC Unreserved broadcasts >>

After the Truth and Reconciliation Commission called for commemoration initiatives, Kwagiulth master carver and artist Carey Newman spent four months thinking about what he’d submit — with little success.

Newman sat in his living room, and put his feet up on a wooden stool. He knew he wanted to work with objects that represented residential schools, but he wasn’t sure how to approach the project. 

He glanced down at his feet on the wooden stool, and he looked at how the wood was joined together.  “I had my a-ha moment,” he recalled. 
“If I gathered pieces of residential schools,” he said. “I could make a blanket out of them.” […]

Old bricks, doorknobs, braids of hair, rusted latches and nails are just a handful of the items that comprise The Witness Blanket. The 12-metre-long blanket is currently housed at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights in Winnipeg. Newman and his team visited roughly 80 communities and spoke with more than 10,000 people. The blanket was assembled from 600 objects and belongings. […]

Newman called The Witness Blanket the most important work he has undertaken. When he started work on the the blanket he hoped it would be a healing project for him, his family and others affected by residential schools. But the project exceeded his hopes.

The Witness Blanket helped bring Newman closer to his family including his father, a residential school survivor. 

Residential school survivors who have seen the blanket have told Newman that it helps carry their story into the future — a story that is often too hard for them to tell. […]

Newman’s work will be permanently displayed at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights, but he’s working on a replica that will travel across the country. “I hope that this exhibit continues the work that the blanket began. I hope that it can go further afield into places that the blanket couldn’t get to,” said Newman.

Newman hopes that the belongings that make up The Witness Blanket will give people “a sense of that tangibility of residential schools,” he said. 
“All of those objects were in schools. All of them are witnesses.”

Source: Bearing witness: Artist turns gathered objects into monument to residential school survivors
URL: https://www.cbc.ca/radio/unreserved/uncovering-the-complicated-history-of-blankets-in-indigenous-communities-1.5264926/bearing-witness-artist-turns-gathered-objects-into-monument-to-residential-school-survivors-1.5264932
Date visited: 9 October 2019


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Inspiring human rights, reflection and dialogue.
The Museum fosters an appreciation for the importance of human rights, spurs informed dialogue and invites participants to identify the contemporary relevance of past and present human rights events, both at home and abroad. The Museum exemplifies Canadians’ commitment to freedom and democracy and aims to ignite an informed, ever-evolving global conversation. […]

As the world’s first museum dedicated to human rights, we are centred around the idea that respect and understanding of human rights can serve as a positive force for change in the world.

https://humanrights.ca/about/mandate >>

Education is the key to reconciliation

Education is what got us into this mess … but education is the key to reconciliation,” said Senator Murray Sinclair, who led the Truth and Reconciliation Commission [for Canada].

This week on Unreserved, three years after the release of the TRC’s final report, is there space for Indigenous knowledge in academia?

Student Danielle Bourque on why she doesn’t like being singled out for being First Nation in her graduate courses.

Professor Sheila Cote-Meeks wrote the book, Colonized Classrooms: Racism, Trauma and Resistance in Post-secondary Education, which looks at the experiences of Indigenous students and academics in post-secondary education.

Professor Eve Tuck weighs in on the challenges that face the academy as it strives to Indigenize.

Hayden King on the challenge facing Indigenous academics and faculty members as universities and colleges across the country look to hire more Indigenous faculty.

Mark Solomon makes the case for university faculties becoming more involved with surrounding Indigenous communities.

And Dr. Kyle Powys Whyte and Dr. Sarah Hunt discuss what it’s like for Indigenous academics to go through the peer review process.

http://www.cbc.ca/radio/unreserved/decolonizing-the-classroom-is-there-space-for-indigenous-knowledge-in-academia-1.4544984

 


The poet and host of CBC Radio’s “Unreserved” talks about sharing her mother’s story of residential school in her latest poetry collection.

5:15 “In the meantime I had this silent mother, I grew up with no mother really, I grew up with a person who fed me, clothed me […] she wasn’t there in many ways.”

cbc-rosanna-deerchild

Unreserved

Intelligent, Insightful, Indigenous. Stories, music, culture. Unreserved is the true voice of Indigenous Canada. Hosted by Rosanna Deerchild.

Download episodes from this podcast for: 6 months
Visit Show Site: http://www.cbc.ca/radio/unreserved

Also listen to Lost and found: Indigenous music, culture, language and artifacts >>

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The role of tribal communities in promoting organic farming and safeguarding rights on forest land: Athakoshia Adivasi Ekta Manch – Odisha

Farmers busy preparing organic pesticides for their fields. (Photo by Basudev Mahapatra)

How Tribal Women of Odisha Have Made Farming Organic, Profitable & Life-Changing | Read the full article and view more images >>

Basudev Mahapatra, Thebetterindia.com, July 13, 2017

Tribal communities in Sundargarh district of Odisha have revived the traditional practice of growing food without the help of chemical fertilisers and made it viable economically by making pragmatic changes. Basudev Mahapatra takes a closer look.

Nirmala Barla (40), a passionate farmer of Sundargarh district’s Brahmanamara village, is a proud woman because she feeds her family with a variety of safely grown food, and not just cereals grown by using lots of chemical fertilisers that are available in the market. In her 14 acres of land, both upland and relatively plain, she grows rice, millet and vegetables without using any inorganic fertilisers. After meeting consumption needs of the family, she is also able to earn a bit by selling the surplus farm produce. […]

From individual to collective farming

Now the women folk of these tribal communities do not keep themselves limited to individual farm activities in their own lands only. They have now formed groups comprising landholders and landless poor and taken up patches of land on lease to grow variety of nutrition-rich food crops including millets, pulses and vegetables.

This model is developed in line with the traditional tribal system of Panch, where a team of tribal males from the households work together for terracing, bounding and leveling the sloped land in the hilly terrain to make them farming-ready and building small water-harvesting structures for limited irrigation.

One of the best features of these collective models of women farmers is that even the landless poor member of the group has equal share of the harvest. So this concept has got wide acceptance and, as of now, 48 women farmers’ collectives operate in different villages.

The group of eight woman farmers from Oram tribal community of Budajharan village, named Oliva Women Farmers’ Collective, has received several accolades for growing about 12 crops including brinjal, chilly, onion, tomato, cow-pea, watermelon, beans, bitter-gourd, ladies finger, sunflower, pumpkin and leafy-vegetables, in one season by dedicating one row for each crop.

These groups are affiliated to the larger front of tribal communities called Athakoshia Adivasi Ekta Manch, which fights for their rights on forest land and the commons to expand the area under organic farming. […]

Basudev Mahapatra is a journalist based in Bhubaneswar.

Adapted from an article originally published on VillageSquare.in. Subscribe to VillageSquare’s weekly update on the website for more stories from rural India.

Source: How Tribal Women of Odisha Have Made Farming Organic, Profitable & Life-Changing
URL: https://www.thebetterindia.com/108128/tribal-women-sundargarh-make-organic-farming-life-changing-economic-activity/
Date visited: 4 April 2019


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Research the above issues with the help of Shodhganga: A reservoir of theses from universities all over India, made available under Open Access >>

Posted in Eastern region, Ecology and environment, Economy and development, Forest Rights Act (FRA), Names and communities, Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Success story, Women | Tagged | Comments Off on The role of tribal communities in promoting organic farming and safeguarding rights on forest land: Athakoshia Adivasi Ekta Manch – Odisha

Tattoos of central India: Traditions and folklore are being modified or declining – Chhattisgarh & Madhya Pradesh

‘Don’t brand me’: The Indian women saying no to forced tattoos

By Geeta PandeyBBC News, Delhi – 4 October 2017

In India, and across the world, getting a tattoo is nowadays seen as a sign of independence and rebellion. Many young people get inked to showcase their identity, what makes them distinctive and who they are.

But for me, a decision to not get a tattoo was my version of rebellion, an assertion of my hard-fought independence. 

It was my way of saying: “I will not toe the line.” 

I grew up thinking of tattoos, along with nose and ear piercings, as symbols of the subjugation of women.

That’s because my mother has a couple of tattoos. And my grandmother had more than a couple. And they told me they had no choice in the matter.

In many rural communities in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, where my family comes from, it’s mandatory for married women to have tattoos, locally known as Godna. 

“My family told me that if I didn’t have a tattoo, no-one in my matrimonial home would drink water or take food offered by me. I’d be considered impure, an untouchable,” my mother told me recently. My father, of course, didn’t need to get one because, as mum says, “he was a boy”. 

She was a child bride, not even 11 at the time of her wedding in the 1940s. A few weeks after the ceremony, an elderly woman who lived in the neighbourhood was called to the house to brand her.

Source: ‘Don’t brand me’: The Indian women saying no to forced tattoos
URL: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-41466751
Date accessed: 23 July 2018

For more than 2,000 years, the Baiga tribeswomen have been getting tattoos
Photo: BBC News

Geeta Pandey, BBC News, Delhi, 4 October 2017 | Read the full article with more images >>

In India, and across the world, getting a tattoo is nowadays seen as a sign of independence and rebellion. Many young people get inked to showcase their identity, what makes them distinctive and who they are. But for me, a decision to not get a tattoo was my version of rebellion, an assertion of my hard-fought independence. It was my way of saying: “I will not toe the line.” […]

Keya Pandey, a social anthropologist at Lucknow University who has researched tattoos extensively in rural and tribal India, says flora and fauna are among the preferred designs. Also high on the list are the names of husbands or fathers, or even the village, totems or other symbols of cultural or clan identity, and images of a god or local deity. Ms Pandey says she’s seen tattoos in every rural culture in India and estimates that millions of women in villages have them. In some communities, especially in tribal areas, both men and women have tattoos. […]

Traditions and folklore are being modified and girls in villages are no longer interested in getting a tattoo, Ms Pandey says.
Nowhere is that more evident than among the girls of the Baiga tribe in central India. For more than 2,000 years, the women here have been getting branded. […]

There are also communities where women get tattoos for the purpose of beautification – though there are instances where low-caste women got tattooed to make themselves ugly and less desirable to avoid being sexually assaulted by influential men. But in many communities, as in my ancestral village, tattoos are meant only for a woman, a sign of her marital status.

For my mother and grandmother, they were a symbol of purity, the idea that unless a woman was put through a painful purification ritual, she was not fit to serve the patriarchy.

The practice, however, is declining – and many young women, even girls, are saying no to being branded. With modernity and development creeping in and growing contact with the outside world, things are changing in rural and tribal India.

Traditions and folklore are being modified and girls in villages are no longer interested in getting a tattoo […]

New Zealand: Maori customs

Ta Moko is the traditional form of tattooing in Maori culture. Each tattoo is exceptionally unique and resembles the wearer’s social status. | Read the full report in The Times of India Travel, 28 May 2018 >>

The tattoos also reveal the wearer’s tribal affiliations, and tribal messages from ancestors to their current generation. Moko is typically a visual language, which connects a person to his family tree. Traditionally, they would use knives and chisels made from shark teeth and ink made from gum, burnt wood, or other natural products. But now, people opt for modern techniques for tattooing. 

Find publications on this topic on WorldCat.org by searching for “Baiga tribe tattoo”, “India women tattoo”, “tribal custom central India” or similar combinations):

Search for an item in libraries near you:
WorldCat.org >>
 

For recent reports on India’s tribal cultural heritage, search select periodicals in the above search window. A list of  periodicals, online journals and portals included in each custom search is found here >>

Research the above issues with the help of Shodhganga: A reservoir of theses from universities all over India, made available under Open Access >>

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Posted in Anthropology, Bastar, Central region, Childhood and children, Customs, Dress and ornaments, Health and nutrition, History, Modernity, Names and communities, Photos and slideshows, Press snippets, Social conventions, Storytelling, Video resources - external, Women, Worship and rituals | Tagged , | Comments Off on Tattoos of central India: Traditions and folklore are being modified or declining – Chhattisgarh & Madhya Pradesh