Category Archives: Constitution and Supreme Court

[T]he Constitution gives equal respect to all communities, sects, lingual and ethnic groups, etc. The Constitution guarantees to all citizens freedom of speech (Article 19), freedom of religion (Article 25), equality (Articles 14 to 17), liberty (Article 21), etc.” – Supreme Court judgment quoted in “India, largely a country of immigrants” (The Hindu, 12 January 2011)
https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/article1081343.ece
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=4315

“About 80 per cent of the 5 million chronically undernourished tribal children live in just eight states of Karnataka, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Odisha. Tribal peoples in these states, which are covered by the Fifth Schedule of the Indian Constitution, and also other states have borne the maximum brunt of land alienation, displacement and poor compensation.” – Unicef India “What we do: Tribal nutrition” (accessed 26 July 2022)
https://www.unicef.org/india/what-we-do/tribal-nutrition
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=11674

“Constitutional and legal mandates are not sufficient to protect the rights of the marginalised group including Dalit and tribals. […] The only recourse available to us is to faithfully abide by and give life to the constitutional ideals which Dr Ambedkar helped formulate, and use those to bring transformative change in the minds and perceptions of the society.” – Supreme Court Judge Justice D.Y. Chandrachud quoted in “Members of De-Notified Tribes Picked Up to Cover Up Shoddy Investigations” (The Wire, 7 December 2021)
https://thewire.in/rights/members-of-de-notified-tribes-picked-up-to-cover-up-shoddy-investigations-justice-chandrachud 
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=20996

“[A]ny laws intended to safeguard the fundamental rights of Adivasis must acknowledge the fact that their diverse and complex identities are not homogenous, and that uniform laws have failed to address their systemic marginalisation since the colonial era.” – Summary for Adivasi rights and exclusion in India by V. Srinivasa Rao (Routledge, 2019)
http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1053859141
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=10409

“India, also known as Bharat, is a Union of States. It is a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government. […] The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them. […] All citizens shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression, to assemble peaceably.” – Constitution of India (Visited: 15 April 2021)
https://www.india.gov.in/my-government/constitution-india
https://legislative.gov.in/sites/default/files/COI_1.pdf
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?page_id=18809

“In the midst of the fratricide wrought by the barbed edges of faiths, the Prime Minister [Nehru] preached tolerance of all spiritual proclivities, rather than the eradication of religion itself. India’s constitution, Adopted in 1949, enshrined the freedom to practice and preach religion as a fundamental right. For his own part, Nehru would maintain that he abhorred ‘organized religion’, a phrase that dated back only to the mid-nineteenth century. ‘Almost always it seemed to stand for blind belief and reaction, dogma and bigotry, superstition and exploitation’, Nehru recalled in his Autobiography.” – Anna Della Subin in Accidental Gods: On Men Unwittingly Turned Divine (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2021), p. 282
https://www.worldcat.org/title/1151100898
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=2299

“[Scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, and other backward classes (OBCs)], whose classifications are officially denoted and recognized in India, have long been formally identified by the government as deserving constitutional and statutory protection as well as affirmative public benefits, due to the historic, socio-economic, political, and religious discrimination they have faced.” – Jayanth K. Krishnan & C. Raj Kumar in “Delay in Process, Denial of Justice: The Jurisprudence and Empirics of Speedy Trials in Comparative Perspective”, 42 Georgetown Journal of International Law 747 (2011)
https://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/facpub/155/
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=13755

“While delivering the Foundation Day lecture, the Vice President asked that we shall first have to give up this hubris of considering tribes backward. Every tribe has a rich and living cultural tradition and we must respect them. He said it not only social courtesy to respect their cultural traditions but it is also our Constitutional obligation. He said as we are looking for ways of sustainable development, these groups can teach us lessons in sustainable development. [T]heir belief in the Nature remains one and firm. There can’t be a better example of Unity in Diversity.” – M. Venkaiah Naidu (Vice President of India) in the First Foundation Day Lecture of the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) titled “Constitution and Tribes” (Press Information Bureau, 19 February 2019)
https://ncst.nic.in/sites/default/files/2019/Media/2.pdf
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=36256

“He who has not surrendered his free will and abdicated his intelligence and independent thinking, who does not blindly act on the teachings of others, who does not blindly accept anything without critically analysing and examining its veracity and usefulness, who is always prepared to protect his rights, who is not afraid of ridicule and unjust public criticism, who has a sound conscience and self-respect so as not become a tool in the hands of others, I call him a free man.” – Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (who was more than the “drafter of the Constitution”), quoted by Goldy M George in Journal of People’s Studies (Volume 1, Issue 4 June 2016, Page v)
https://www.academia.edu/28587897
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=20996

“The framers of the Constitution took note of the fact that certain communities in the country were suffering from extreme social, educational and economic backwardness arising out of age-old practice of untouchability and certain others on account of this primitive agricultural practices, lack of infrastructure facilities and geographical isolation, and who need special consideration for safeguarding their interests and for their accelerated socio-economic development. These communities were notified as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes as per provisions contained in Clause 1 of Articles 341 and 342 of the Constitution respectively.” – National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (accessed 31 May 2020)
https://www.ncst.gov.in/index.php
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=33998

“At present, India has 1,350 prisons with a rated full capacity of 4,03,739 prisoners. All jails are bursting with overcrowding and degrading inhuman conditions, so much for standards of human rights of prisoners in terms of the Constitution of India. The Constitution envisioned prisons as centres of reforms, which is not happening.” – MY Siddiqui in “Time to tame torturers” (tehelka.com, 29 October 2020)
http://tehelka.com/time-to-tame-torturers/
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=25720

Tip | How many ‘Scheduled Tribes’ are there in India? And what distinguishes them from other communities? (‘tribal’ or otherwise) – Information provided by the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes

There are over 700 tribes (with overlapping communities in more than one State) which have been notified under Article 342 of the Constitution of India, spread over different States and Union Territories of the country. The largest number of main … Continue reading

Posted in Adivasi / Adibasi, Assimilation, Constitution and Supreme Court, Customs, Democracy, Economy and development, FAQ, Figures, census and other statistics, Government of India, History, Organizations, Press snippets, Quotes, Regions of India – Tribal heritage & indigenous knowledge, Resources, Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Rural poverty, Scheduled Tribe (ST), Tips, Tribal identity, Worship and rituals | Comments Off on Tip | How many ‘Scheduled Tribes’ are there in India? And what distinguishes them from other communities? (‘tribal’ or otherwise) – Information provided by the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes

From Adivasi and Scheduled Tribes to Indigenous Peoples: “Tribes In Transition-II: Reaffirming Indigenous Identity Through Narrative” (National Conference) – New Delhi

Parallel Session 3: The ‘Tribe’ defined in Social SciencesChaired by: Prof. Bipin Jojo, TISS, MumbaiPaper Presenters: Shreya Jessica Dhan (JNU, New Delhi), Anu Krishnan (TISS, Mumbai), Pradyumna Bag (JMI, New Delhi), Evy Mehzabeen (JNU, New Delhi). Shreya Jessica Dhan, in her … Continue reading

Posted in Adivasi / Adibasi, Adverse inclusion, Anthropology, Assimilation, Colonial policies, Constitution and Supreme Court, Democracy, Economy and development, Forest Rights Act (FRA), Government of India, Literature and bibliographies, Misconceptions, Modernity, Names and communities, Nature and wildlife, Networking, Quotes, Revival of traditions, Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Scheduled Tribe (ST), Social conventions, Storytelling, Tribal identity, Worship and rituals | Tagged , | Comments Off on From Adivasi and Scheduled Tribes to Indigenous Peoples: “Tribes In Transition-II: Reaffirming Indigenous Identity Through Narrative” (National Conference) – New Delhi

Justice, social, economic and political equality for all citizens: Ramachandra Guha on safeguards for minorities, backward and tribal areas enshrined in the Indian Constitution

This essay was first published in the Economic and Political Weekly (August 11, 2007) under the title, “Adivasis, Naxalites, And Indian Democracy” and is republished here with the author’s permission as it – unfortunately – remains as relevant today. […] … Continue reading

Posted in Accountability, Adivasi / Adibasi, Constitution and Supreme Court, Democracy, Economy and development, Gandhian social movement, Government of India, History, Literature and bibliographies, Media portrayal, Misconceptions, Modernity, Organizations, Photos and slideshows, Press snippets, Quotes, Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Rural poverty, Women | Comments Off on Justice, social, economic and political equality for all citizens: Ramachandra Guha on safeguards for minorities, backward and tribal areas enshrined in the Indian Constitution

Absence of a dowry-system, divorce by mutual consent, and widow-re-marriage: On the high status of women in Badaga communities (Nilgiri) – Tamil Nadu

The Badagas are a unique community living mainly in the Nilgiris District in Tamil nadu in South India. They are also the single largest community of the Nilgiris. Though classified backward, a significant factor is the high status of their … Continue reading

Posted in Anthropology, Assimilation, Colonial policies, Constitution and Supreme Court, Crafts and visual arts, Customs, Economy and development, Fashion and design, Government of India, History, Homes and utensils, Languages and linguistic heritage, Misconceptions, Modernity, Museum collections - India, Names and communities, Nilgiri Biosphere, Organizations, Photos and slideshows, Press snippets, Quotes, Revival of traditions, Scheduled Tribe (ST), Seasons and festivals, Southern region – Southern Zonal Council, Storytelling, Websites by tribal communities, Western Ghats – Tribal heritage and ecology, Women, Worship and rituals | Tagged | Comments Off on Absence of a dowry-system, divorce by mutual consent, and widow-re-marriage: On the high status of women in Badaga communities (Nilgiri) – Tamil Nadu

Western India’s cotton-growing and -dyeing technologies traced to Indus Valley civilization – Western region

The western region consists of the desert states of Gujarat and Rajasthan as well as Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and western Madhya Pradesh. […] The region is home to a wide variety of people with different religions and cultures, most … Continue reading

Posted in Archaeology, Colonial policies, Commentary, Constitution and Supreme Court, Crafts and visual arts, Customs, Dress and ornaments, Ecology and environment, Economy and development, Fashion and design, Figures, census and other statistics, Gandhian social movement, Government of India, History, Misconceptions, Modernity, Names and communities, Photos and slideshows, Quotes, Rural poverty, Western region –  Western Zonal Council, Women, Worship and rituals | Tagged , | Comments Off on Western India’s cotton-growing and -dyeing technologies traced to Indus Valley civilization – Western region