A constitution which guarantees: “The State shall not discriminate against any citizen” – The Sovereign Republic of India

Sardar Patel signing the Constitution
Photo: The Better India >>
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891-1956) was independent India’s first Minister of Law and Justice, and the chief architect of the Constitution of India. – Wikipedia

“The Indian constitution had to empower the state to enter into the realm of Indian society and transform it by eradicating deeply embedded economic, political and social hierarchies.” – Centre for Law and Policy Research (a Bengaluru-based think-tank), quoted by Rinchen Norbu Wangchuk in The Better India, 22 January 2019

Source: “Republic Day 2019: 9 Constitutions That Inspired The Ideals That Define Modern India”
URL: https://www.thebetterindia.com/170247/india-constitution-inspiration-acts-rights-ambedkar-republic-day/
Date visited: 7 June 2020

Tip: Bhimayana, an award winning graphic novel on Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar illustrated by Gond artists

To peruse related documents published by government agencies and NGOs, click here >>

Ambedkar had been the champion of freedom, free thinking and liberty whose words are important to be remembered. […]

B. R. Ambedkar
Wikipedia >>

The caste system has recognised slavery in inverse order of status and maintained inequality in every sphere of human activity social, political, economic, legal, religious etc.
This insightful quote provides the depth of caste where liberty and equality are antagonistic to the very notion of caste. On another occasion while discussing the reality of being a free human Ambedkar said,
he who is not a slave of circumstances and is always ready and striving to change them in his favour, I call him free. One who is not a slave of usage, customs, of meaningless rituals and ceremonies, of superstitions and traditions; whose flame of reason has not been extinguished, I call him a free man. He who has not surrendered his free will and abdicated his intelligence and independent thinking, who does not blindly act on the teachings of others, who does not blindly accept anything without critically analysing and examining its veracity and usefulness, who is always prepared to protect his rights, who is not afraid of ridicule and unjust public criticism, who has a sound conscience and self-respect so as not become a tool in the hands of others, I call him a free man. He who does not lead his life under the direction of others, who sets his own goal of life according to his own reasoning and decides for himself as to how and in what way life should be lead, is a free man.’

Source: Ambedkar’s Insights quoted in “Contested Freedom” (Editorial), Journal of People’s Studies, Volume 1, Issue 4 June 2016, Page iii
URL: https://www.academia.edu/28587897/JOURNAL_OF_PEOPLE_S_STUDIES_-_Volume_1_Issue_4
Date visited: 7 June 2020

Learn more: Bondage | Bonded labour | Human trafficking | SlaveryZamindari >>
Gandhiji at Prayer Time, Parnakuti, Poona (1944) by Chittaprosad, the great advocate of the rights of workers and revolutionary artists. | Learn more in “Gandhi, Secularism, and Cultural Democracy” by Vinay Lal >>
Gandhian social movement | Constitution >>

All subjects will thus be equal in the eyes of the law. But every single individual will be free to pursue his own religion without hindrance, so long as it does not transgress the common law. The question of the ‘protection of minorities’ is not good for me; it rests upon the recognition of religious groupings between citizens of the same state. What I wish India to do is to assure liberty of religious profession to every single individual. Then only India can be great, for it was perhaps the one nation in the ancient world which had recognized cultural democracy, whereby it is held that the roads to God are many, but the goal is one, because God is one and the same. In fact the roads are as many as there are individuals in the world.

Source: Vinay Lal blog “Gandhi, Secularism, and Cultural Democracy” (2 October 2020)
URL: https://vinaylal.wordpress.com/2020/10/02/gandhi-secularism-and-cultural-democracy/
Date visited: 4 October 2020

“If we wish to maintain democracy not merely in form but also in fact … we must observe the caution which John Stuart Mill has given all those who are interested in the maintenance of democracy: namely, not to lay the liberties at the feet of even a great man, or to trust him with powers which enable him to subvert their institutions.
Hero-worship is a sure road to degradation and to eventual dictatorship.” *
The Sovereign Republic of India was formally proclaimed on January 26, 1950, governed by a constitution which guaranteed
The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law
The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex
‘Untouchability’ is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden.

Source: Gita Mehta (*quoting Dr Ambedkar) in Snakes and Ladders: A View of Modern India (Minerva 1997 ed.) – pp. 92-93

India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government| Learn more >>

To an administrator, the term ‘tribe’ means a group of citizens who are the special responsibility of the President of India | Learn more >>

Their greatest work: How Indians made Constitution a success

Parliament sessions usually begin with remembrances of recently departed eminent personalities. But this Winter session of parliament, beginning November 26, did something refreshingly different. It remembered BR Ambedkar  | To read the full article, click here >>
We could use the preamble to the Constitution to measure how we have done as a sovereign nation. The preamble sets out objectives of securing to all citizens social, economic and political justice; liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; equality of status and of opportunity, and aims to promote fraternity and ensure the unity and integrity of the Nation.
Proving western sceptics wrong, democracy has survived and thrived in India. The success of the Indian Constitution lies in the fact that the institutions it created — Parliament, Supreme Court, Election Commission or the Comptroller and Auditor General of India — have broadly functioned well. True, the entire electoral system is crying out for reforms and unfortunately, it’s coming from the Supreme Court and not the political class.

Source: Their greatest work: How Indians made Constitution a success, Column by Chanakya | Hindustan Times, 29 November 2015
Address: https://www.hindustantimes.com/columns/the-constitution-of-india-on-the-front-shelf-of-the-nation-s-library/story-ze7NGQQurWIZhy6fttG23K.html
Date Visited: Fri Sep 16 2016 18:43:02 GMT+0200 (CEST)

Ziya Us Salam, The Hindu,  | To read the full interview with Romila Thapar, click here >>

A society whose ambience is suffused with fear ceases to nurture creativity and its life is reduced to a routine banality. […]

Attempts to silence free speech are, of course, always characteristic of governments that lack confidence and are uncomfortable with an independent citizenry. […]

Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Dalits and Adivasis are all equal citizens. All citizens have the right to debate and discuss their duties towards the state and also the obligations of the state to ensure that the claims to human rights of all citizens are met by the state to an equal degree.

Source: ‘Nationalism does not allow the Hindu in India to claim primacy: Romila Thapar – The Hindu
Address: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/historian-romila-thapar-says-nationalism-does-not-allow-the-hindu-in-india-to-claim-primacy/article8300752.ece
Date Visited: Sat Oct 01 2016 11:02:33 GMT+0200 (CEST)

[Bold typeface added above for emphasis]

Adivasi [adibasi] – which is derived from Sanskrit – is applied to the dark-skinned or Austro-Asiatic indigenous groups of India (usually those from Eastern India). It is a commonly-used term in Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal and Odisha. It is also used by the local Mongoloid tribes of North Eastern India for the migrant workers who were brought in as indentured labourers to work in tea plantations during the colonial period. ‘Tribal’ is a very broad term in the English language, as we all know, and includes all the different indigenous groups of India.” – Dr. Ivy Hansdak (email dated 27 March 2020) | “Who are Scheduled Tribes?” (National Commission for Scheduled Tribes) | Classifications in different states >>


For more information on the above issues, type “untouchability”, “scheduled tribe constitution”, “Ambedkar tribes [adivasi]”, “Jaipal Singh Munda” [adivasi], “Nehru tribes [adivasi]”, “Mahatma Gandhi adivasi”, “Indian constitution adivasi”, “United Nations India tribal protection” or similar search words into the search window here:

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This entry was posted in Accountability, Adivasi / Adibasi, Commentary, Constitution and Supreme Court, Customs, Democracy, Economy and development, Gandhian social movement, Government of India, History, Modernity, Press snippets, Quotes, Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Scheduled Tribe (ST), Success story, Worship and rituals. Bookmark the permalink.