“If we wish to maintain democracy not merely in form but also in fact … we must observe the caution which John Stuart Mill has given all those who are interested in the maintenance of democracy: namely, not to lay the liberties at the feet of even a great man, or to trust him with powers which enable him to subvert their institutions.
Hero-worship is a sure road to degradation and to eventual dictatorship.” *
The Sovereign Republic of India was formally proclaimed on January 26, 1950, governed by a constitution which guaranteed
The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law
The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex
‘Untouchability’ is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden.
Source: Gita Mehta (*quoting Dr Ambedkar) in Snakes and Ladders: A View of Modern India (Minerva 1997 ed.) – pp. 92-93
Their greatest work: How Indians made Constitution a success
Chanakya, Hindustan Times, Nov 29, 2015
Parliament sessions usually begin with remembrances of recently departed eminent personalities. But this Winter session of parliament, beginning November 26, did something refreshingly different. It remembered BR Ambedkar | To read the full article, click here >>
We could use the preamble to the Constitution to measure how we have done as a sovereign nation. The preamble sets out objectives of securing to all citizens social, economic and political justice; liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; equality of status and of opportunity, and aims to promote fraternity and ensure the unity and integrity of the Nation.
Proving western sceptics wrong, democracy has survived and thrived in India. The success of the Indian Constitution lies in the fact that the institutions it created — Parliament, Supreme Court, Election Commission or the Comptroller and Auditor General of India — have broadly functioned well. True, the entire electoral system is crying out for reforms and unfortunately, it’s coming from the Supreme Court and not the political class.
Source: Their greatest work: How Indians made Constitution a success | columns | Hindustan Times
Date Visited: Fri Sep 16 2016 18:43:02 GMT+0200 (CEST)
Ziya Us Salam, The Hindu, March 2, 2016 | To read the full interview with Romila Thapar, click here >>
A society whose ambience is suffused with fear ceases to nurture creativity and its life is reduced to a routine banality. […]
Attempts to silence free speech are, of course, always characteristic of governments that lack confidence and are uncomfortable with an independent citizenry. […]
Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Dalits and Adivasis are all equal citizens. All citizens have the right to debate and discuss their duties towards the state and also the obligations of the state to ensure that the claims to human rights of all citizens are met by the state to an equal degree.
Source: ‘Nationalism does not allow the Hindu in India to claim primacy: Romila Thapar – The Hindu
Date Visited: Sat Oct 01 2016 11:02:33 GMT+0200 (CEST)
[Bold typeface added above for emphasis]
“Adivasi and “tribal” are not interchangeable as explained by Dr. Ivy Hansdak:
“Tribal” is a very broad term in the English language, as we all know, and includes all the different indigenous groups of India.
“Adivasi” – which is derived from Sanskrit – is applied to the dark-skinned or Austro-Asiatic indigenous groups of India (usually those from Eastern India). It is a commonly-used term in Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal and Odisha. It is also used by the local Mongoloid tribes of North Eastern India for the migrant workers who were brought in as indentured labourers to work in tea plantations during the colonial period.
Source: personal message (email dated 27 March 2020)
- State wise population of Scheduled Tribes (ST) and their percentage to the total population in the respective states and to the total STs population
- “Who are Scheduled Tribes?”: Clarifications by the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes – Government of India
Research the above issues with the help of Shodhganga: A reservoir of theses from universities all over India, made available under Open Access >>
For more information on the above issues, type “untouchability”, “scheduled tribe constitution”, “Ambedkar tribes [adivasi]”, “Jaipal Singh Munda” [adivasi], “Nehru tribes [adivasi]”, “Mahatma Gandhi adivasi”, “Indian constitution adivasi”, “United Nations India tribal protection” or similar search words into the search window here:
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