Category Archives: Economy and development

“For how long will I have to/ Bear the pain of development
Or is it that I will be done to death/ Before attaining development?”
Quote from a poem by Ram Dayal Munda titled “The Pain of Development (Vikas Ka Dard)”
https://joharjournal.org/ram-dayal-munda/
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=4548

“All the nations which succeeded in achieving inclusive growth in the Global South had land reforms combined with human capital, invested in infrastructure by promoting capitalism from below and began industrialisation in the rural sector. Only India lost on all three counts.“ – Kalai­yarasan A. (As­sis­tant Pro­fes­sor at the Madras In­sti­tute of De­vel­op­ment Stud­ies and non-res­i­dent fel­low at the Cen­ter for Con­tem­po­rary South Asia, Brown Univer­sity) in “The role of caste in economic transformation“ (The Hindu, 23 June 2022)
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=2943

“In fact, the integration of tribes has been seen as the panacea of their problems. However, if one looks at the nature of integration, one finds that the relationship between tribes and non-tribes and even the state, has been overwhelmingly interspersed with exploitation, domination and discrimination, which is conveniently overlooked.” – Virginius Xaxa, excerpt from Being Adivasi (Penguin Books India)
https://scroll.in/article/1014436/being-adivasi-autonomous-existence-or-integration-nehru-had-proposed-a-third-way
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=27829

“Though the masses of India were desperately poor and growing poorer, a tiny fringe at the top was prospering under the new conditions and accumulating capital [during British rule]. It was this fringe that demanded political reform as well as opportunities for investment.” – Jawaharlal Nehru in The Discovery Of India (1946, OUP Centenary ed. 1989, p. 330)
https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.98835
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=17554

“In a year GDP contracted 7.7 per cent, and as we brace for another round of ‘reverse’ migrations, and as the farmers wait unheeded at the gates of Delhi, Indian billionaires reached record levels of wealth. [O]n the UN Human Development Index [we] rank 131 in 189 countries.” – P. Sainath in “Forbes, India and Pandora’s Pandemic Box” (16 April 2021)
https://ruralindiaonline.org/en/articles/forbes-india-and-pandoras-pandemic-box/
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=1518

“In India, mobile peoples including former hunters-gatherers and criminal tribes, now denotified, have been the primary victims of both democracy and development.” – Review by Ashish Saxena (Department of Sociology, University of Allahabad) on The subaltern speaks: Truth and ethics in Mahasweta Devi’s fiction on tribals (2016) by Sanatan Bhowal, a book which “looks at the ideas of different thinkers with respect to selected texts of Mahasweta Devi’s fiction on tribal life”
https://orientblackswan.com/pressreviews/The%20Subaltern%20Speaks.pdf
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=20733

“Scheduled Tribes (STs) and also Scheduled Castes (SCs) are the disadvantaged sections of the society due to socio-economic exploitation and isolation since times immemorial.” – Foreword to “Tribal Sub-Plan in Maharashtra: A Diagnostic Study” (TATA Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai supported by Unicef Maharashtra, December 2015)
https://cdnbbsr.s3waas.gov.in/s3c8758b517083196f05ac29810b924aca/uploads/2019/11/2019112971.pdf
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=31354

“The tribal population was totally unprepared for the colonial economy. British land revenue policies and Forest Law directly affected their means of livelihood. They had been practicing shifting cultivation and were heavily dependent on forest for their day-to-day lives. Permanent land settlements gradually took away the land from them that they had been using for their mode of cultivation as common communal property.” – Subha Johari in “Tribal Dissatisfaction Under Colonial Economy of 19th Century”
http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1040271311
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=11961

“Studies show that the development projects exclude and alienate Adivasi communities in India and they describe the history of Adivasi development in India in terms of material deprivation and cultural marginalisation. While the socio-political and cultural exclusion is acknowledged as a universal feature of Adivasi life, the everyday experience of their exclusion differs among different Adivasi communities.” – Abstract for PhD thesis by Leena Abraham “Perceptions and experiences of development: a study of two tribal communities in Wayanad district, Kerala” (Tata Institute of Social Sciences, 2013)
http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in:8080/jspui/handle/10603/17821
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=5169

“[I]f one is poor in India … one is more likely to live in rural areas, more likely to be a member of the Scheduled Caste or Tribe or other socially discriminated group, more likely to be malnourished, sick and in poor health, more likely to be illiterate or poorly educated and with low skills, more likely to live in certain states (such as … Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, and also Orissa) than in others.” — Economist T. N. Srinivasan quoted in India after Gandhi: The History of the World’s Largest Democracy by Ramachandra Guha (Picador India, 2011), p. 711 (explaining the growing migration from poorer areas to richer ones)
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=13755

“There was a conversation I had in Marathwada, during a drought, with an old farmer. He picked up a clump of soil and told me, ‘This is what it is all about’. […] What the peasant was telling me was, ‘A civilisation that does not look after soil is a doomed civilisation [and] going to face the grave danger of just not being able to survive any more.” – Playwright Ramu Ramanathan interviewed by Dipanita Nath in “I know people who have chosen to be silent, some out of fear and others just out of being deadened” (Indian Express, 28 October 2020)
https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/pune/i-know-people-who-have-chosen-to-be-silent-some-out-of-fear-and-others-just-out-of-being-deadened-6902500/
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=5576

“Some goals are clear: cancellation of Third World debt, for instance. In India, for ending the indebtedness of our own Fourth World.” – P. Sainath in “We Didn’t Bleed Him Enough”: When Normal is the Problem (counterpunch.org , 12 August 2020, first published in Frontline magazine)
https://www.counterpunch.org/2020/08/12/we-didnt-bleed-him-enough-when-normal-is-the-problem/

“Unlikely as it may seem, indigenous people are at the forefront of the struggle to save the planet. Their courage and their worldview can inspire those of us who don’t think life on earth should be determined by the boardroom bottomline. We, in our turn, have a role to play in defending the defenders.” – Vanessa Baird in New Internationalist (print ed., issue 446, October 2011), p. 15
https://newint.org
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=4429

“Pervasive corruption, one source of the failure of the Indian bureaucracy, systematically disempowers the poor by making essential (and supposedly free) goods and services unaffordable. Siphoned off on their way down through the system, government funds fail to reach their intended beneficiaries, for whom they could make a life or death difference. Concentrated on their way up, bribes grease the wheels. The bureaucracy functions best for those who have political connections, cultural capital, and financial clout. […] Demeaning representations and bureaucratic techniques of governance normalize the malign neglect of the poor.” – Book review of Red Tape: Bureaucracy, Structural Violence, and Poverty in India by Akhil Gupta in Asian Ethnology 73/1–2, 2014, pp. 312-3
https://nirc.nanzan-u.ac.jp/nfile/4372
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=22767

“India’s political transformation has been slow and hence it has enabled the sustenance of regressive elements. Elite control/capture still persists in parts of the country. Sections of non-elites are not mobilised politically. The competitive politics is yet to become intense in a few states. Even when there is competition at the national level, a substantial section of voters in rural areas do not experience it in their democratic choices. The size of the middle-class continues to be small in most parts of the country. All parties have played a role in the stagnation of the political development in the country.” – V. Santhakumar (Azim Premji University) in: “Why am I not against the BJP?” (Economics in Action, 30 January 2021)
https://vsanthakumar.wordpress.com/2021/01/30/why-am-i-not-against-the-bjp/
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=22893

“People attack me for being a Marxist. I’ll tell you a story. There is a village near Khandala where the caste-families evicted forty Untouchable families who were trying to build a road. The case was put to the Central Government two years ago. One could fight the British, but one can’t fight them, because they are petty bourgeois, they are nothing, and one can’t fight the wind. I have bought two villages, and the Untouchables have moved into them. But I can do nothing to get the petty bureaucracy out. If I lived in England I shouldn’t worry, because there the bureaucracy seems to work. Here it doesn’t, and I protest, and they call me a Marxist.” – Mulk Raj Anand quoted by Dom Moraes in Gone Away (London, 1960), p. 23
http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/18773819
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=22767

“The moral standard of state and society can be deduced from the way people are treated who are not productive anymore and have no assets of their own. Missing the means for self-providence includes all those among the labouring poor who are disabled either because of old age, defective health or other handicaps that prevent them for working for their livelihood.” – Jan Breman in “Caring for destitution or not?” (T.G. Narayanan Memorial Lecture on Social Deprivation, The Hindu, January 19, 2013)
https://www.thehindu.com/news/resources/caring-for-destitution-or-not/article4323348.ece
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=9731

“As far as I can tell, there is no real strategy for thinking about the future of the country. We will have to look to people’s movements on the ground. I think the people of India do not merely have resilience, but also the wisdom that is part of our civilisational inheritance.” – Vinay Lal (Professor of History & Asian American Studies, University of California, Los Angeles UCLA) interviewed by Somak Ghoshal (Livemint.com, 10 December 2020)
https://lifestyle.livemint.com/news/big-story/-the-government-will-use-the-pandemic-as-a-pretext-for-economic-collapse-111607528985657.html
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=23322

Jackfruit and indigenous knowledge: The Kaani tribal community of Kanyakumari forests – Tamil Nadu

RELEVANCE OF INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES RELATED TO JACKFRUIT, WITH REFERENCE TO THE KAANI INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF KANYAKUMARI FORESTS Photos and text by the late Davidson Sargunam (Environmental Educator, Nagercoil, Kanyakumari District) Abstract: The Kaani tribal community resides in 48 … Continue reading

Posted in Anthropology, Community facilities, Customs, Ecology and environment, Economy and development, Ethnobotany & ethnomedicine, Figures, census and other statistics, Health and nutrition, Names and communities, Nature and wildlife, Organizations, Particularly vulnerable tribal group (PVTG), Photos and slideshows, Quotes, Resources, Revival of traditions, Southern region – Southern Zonal Council, Success story, Trees, Western Ghats - tribal heritage & ecology, Worship and rituals | Tagged | Comments Off on Jackfruit and indigenous knowledge: The Kaani tribal community of Kanyakumari forests – Tamil Nadu

Vacationing in a responsible and compassionate manner: Wayanad – Kerala

For the tribes The Priyadarshini Tea Estate was begun as a cooperative society in 1985 to provide a means of livelihood for the Adivasis who were released from bonded labour. I was told the proceeds of our stay at the … Continue reading

Posted in Accountability, Childhood and children, Community facilities, Eco tourism, Ecology and environment, Economy and development, Games and leisure time, Government of India, Homes and utensils, Names and communities, Nature and wildlife, Organizations, Press snippets, Rural poverty, Tourism, Wayanad | Tagged | Comments Off on Vacationing in a responsible and compassionate manner: Wayanad – Kerala

Indira Gandhi National Tribal University Amarkantak – Madhya Pradesh

The tribal people are rich in cultural heritage and skill of art and craft but they are still marginalized in respect to higher education as well as in other walks of life. Now in the present age of globalization the … Continue reading

Posted in Anthropology, Central region – Central Zonal Council, Crafts and visual arts, Customs, Democracy, eBook eJournal ePaper, Economy and development, Education and literacy, Endangered language, Ethnobotany & ethnomedicine, Figures, census and other statistics, Globalization, Government of India, Health and nutrition, Modernity, Narmada, Nature and wildlife, Organizations, Press snippets, Quotes, Rural poverty, Tribal identity, Women | Comments Off on Indira Gandhi National Tribal University Amarkantak – Madhya Pradesh

Tiger conservation and tourism – its impact on the people in and around the tiger reserves

The Supreme Court order [2012] to ban tourism in core tiger reserves, and decisions to shoot poachers at sight find favour with some conservationists, the middle class and media. But what will their impact be on the people who live … Continue reading

Posted in Bees and honey, Biodiversity, Colonial policies, Commentary, De- and re-tribalisation, Democracy, Eco tourism, Ecology and environment, Economy and development, Figures, census and other statistics, Forest Rights Act (FRA), Globalization, Government of India, History, Media portrayal, Misconceptions, Nature and wildlife, Nilgiri, Organizations, Photos and slideshows, Press snippets, Seven Sister States & Sikkim – North Eastern Council, Tiger, Tourism | Comments Off on Tiger conservation and tourism – its impact on the people in and around the tiger reserves

Giving Irula healing practices a place in modern medicine: A new source of livelihood for “one among the six oldest Adivasi tribes” – Puducherry & Tamil Nadu

The term Irula means being capable of finding one’s path in dark forests, according to an Irula myth | Read the full report in the Times of India here >> Born in nature’s lap, Irulas share a symbiotic relationship with Mother Earth. They … Continue reading

Posted in Community facilities, Customs, Eco tourism, Ecology and environment, Economy and development, Ethnobotany & ethnomedicine, Government of India, Health and nutrition, History, Misconceptions, Names and communities, Networking, Organizations, Press snippets, Revival of traditions, Scheduled Tribe (ST), Social conventions, Southern region – Southern Zonal Council, Success story, Tribal identity, Women | Tagged | Comments Off on Giving Irula healing practices a place in modern medicine: A new source of livelihood for “one among the six oldest Adivasi tribes” – Puducherry & Tamil Nadu