Category Archives: Figures, census and other statistics

“After Independence, the erstwhile aborigines were classified as scheduled tribes, the untouchables were classified as scheduled castes and others included in the backward classes. Although, many of the denotified, nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes are spread among SC/ST/OBC, many are still not classified anywhere and have no access to socio-economic benefits, whether education, health, housing or otherwise. […] These communities/tribes account for nearly 10 per cent of community’s population as has been mentioned in some writings and there are nearly 820 communities and tribes in India, although some of the community leaders assess that their number would be more with 198 denotified tribes and nearly 1,500 nomadic tribes and their population may be even more than 10 per cent.” – Bibek Debroy quoting a 2016 Report of the National Commission for Denotified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes NCDNT (Indian Express, 5 January 2017)
https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/crime-criminal-act-racial-discrimination-non-bailable-offence-criminal-tribes-act-an-unfortunate-legacy-4459258/
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=12284

“India is home to nearly 20 Cr. [200 million] traditional forest-dwelling Adivasis and OTFDs [other forest dwelling communities], who derive their subsistence and livelihoods from forest and forest resources over several generations and thousands of years.” – Research team (Sayantani Satpathi, Shambhavi Singh & Subhodeep Basu) in “Revisiting the Forest Rights Act: Status of Implementation with respect to Land Tenures and Collection of Minor Forest Produce), Bharat Rural Livelihoods Foundation (New Delhi, 12 July 2019)
https://www.academia.edu/41756309
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=10151

“As per 2011 census, the total ST [Scheduled Tribes] population is 10.42 crores [104 million], of which more than 50% or in excess of 6 [60 million] crores live in 5th Scheduled Area in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Odisha, Jharkhand and Himachal Pradesh. The 5th Schedule forbids monetization of land by STs in Scheduled Areas.” – Indian Police Service (IPS) officer M Nageswara Rao in “Scheduled Tribes: Who are they? How to mainstream them?” (Times of India, 16 May 2020)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/blogs/voices/scheduled-tribes-who-are-they-how-to-mainstream-them/
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=5576

“The tribal population in Maharashtra in 2011 was 10.5 million constituting 9.35 percent of the total population of the state. The state has the second largest tribal population in the country, next only to Madhya Pradesh, with 10 percent of the total ST population of India. Numerically, Maharashtra state has the largest number of tribal population in the country.” – Foreword to “Tribal Sub-Plan in Maharashtra: A Diagnostic Study” (TATA Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai supported by Unicef Maharashtra, December 2015)
https://cdnbbsr.s3waas.gov.in/s3c8758b517083196f05ac29810b924aca/uploads/2019/11/2019112971.pdf
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=31354

“About 80 per cent of the 5 million chronically undernourished tribal children live in just eight states of Karnataka, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Odisha.” – Programme report on Tribal nutrition: “UNICEF’s efforts to support the tribal population, especially children who suffer from malnourishment”
https://www.unicef.org/india/what-we-do/tribal-nutrition
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=11674

“Broadly, trafficking is the exploitation of people, most often for sexual exploitation or forced labour. The different elements are captured within the UN ‘Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children’,1 adopted in 2000 and implemented by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). […] The highest numbers of trafficking victims are detected in the countries in which they are citizens. […] Walk Free Foundation has used figures from household surveys to produce their ‘Global Slavery Index’, which estimated that on “any given day in 2016, an estimated 24.9 million men, women, and children were living in modern slavery in Asia and the Pacific” – Anna Tsalapatanis (Centre for Socio-Legal Studies, University of Oxford) in “An uncertainty of terms. Definitional and methodological concerns in human trafficking” (IIAS The Newsletter 87 Autumn 2020)
https://www.iias.asia/the-newsletter/article/uncertainty-terms-definitional-and-methodological-concerns-human-trafficking
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=36150

“There are over 700 tribes (with overlapping communities in more than one State) which have been notified under Article 342 of the Constitution of India, spread over different States and Union Territories of the country. The largest number of main tribal communities (62) has been specified in relation to the State of Orissa. The Scheduled Tribes have been specified in relation to all the States and Union Territories except Haryana, Punjab, Chandigarh, Delhi, and Pondicherry.” – National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, Government of India (Ministry of Tribal Affairs), accessed on 14 September 2021
https://www.ncst.gov.in/content/frequently-asked-questions
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?p=22095

“Among the 75 listed [Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups] the highest number are found in Odisha (13), followed by Andhra Pradesh (12), Bihar including Jharkhand (9) Madhya Pradesh including Chhattisgarh (7) Tamil Nadu (6) Kerala and Gujarat having five groups each. The remaining PVTGs live in West Bengal (3) Maharashtra (3), two each in Karnataka and Uttarakhand and one each in Rajasthan, Tripura and Manipur. All the four tribal groups in Andamans, and one in Nicobar Islands, are recognised as PVTGs. […] Smallest population size among the PVTGs are the Senteneles (as per the last contact effort on March 9, 2005, groups of 32 and 13 persons were sighted at different places). They still shy away from others. The Great Andamanese (57 persons) and the Onge (107 persons in 2012 as per Andaman Adim Janjati Vikas Samiti) are the dwindling populations. In main land, the Toto of West Bengal (314 families with 1,387 persons as per 2011 census) and the Toda of Tamil Nadu (1,608, inclusive of 238 Christian Todas as per TRC, Udagamandalam [Ooty], 2011)) have population less than 2000 persons. The Saharia people of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan are the largest among the PVTGs with population more than 4 lakhs.” – “The Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups of India — Privileges and Predicaments” (published by the Anthropological Survey of India AnSI)), quoted by Shiv Sahay Singh in “Vulnerable tribes: lost in a classification trap” (The Hindu, 8 April 2017)
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/vulnerable-tribes-lost-in-a-classification-trap/article17894997.ece
https://indiantribalheritage.org/?page_id=22029

Schooling vs child labour – an unfinished agenda by Harsh Mander

Millions of our children still labour today, in factories, farms, kilns, mines, homes and city waste dumps, when they should be in school or in a playground. We profoundly fail these children, collectively depriving them of education, play, rest, healthy … Continue reading

Posted in Accountability, Childhood and children, Commentary, Constitution and Supreme Court, Democracy, Education and literacy, Figures, census and other statistics, Government of India, Health and nutrition, Organizations, Press snippets, Rural poverty | Comments Off on Schooling vs child labour – an unfinished agenda by Harsh Mander

Adivasi societies – a heterogeneous set of ethnic and tribal groups in South Asia

Adivasi (a Hindi word that literally means the original inhabitants) is a term for a heterogeneous set of ethnic and tribal groups believed to be the aboriginal population of India. Adivasi societies are present in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan and … Continue reading

Posted in Accountability, Activities, Adivasi / Adibasi, Colonial policies, Community facilities, Democracy, Economy and development, Education and literacy, Figures, census and other statistics, Government of India, Health and nutrition, History, Modernity, Names and communities, Nature and wildlife, Networking, Organizations, Quotes, Rural poverty, Seasons and festivals, Social conventions, Tribal culture worldwide, Tribal identity, Websites by tribal communities | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on Adivasi societies – a heterogeneous set of ethnic and tribal groups in South Asia

Memories of life in a remote Bhil hamlet on the Narmada river: “Poor but not impoverished” – Maharashtra

The Narmada Control Authority (NCA) has been setup under the final orders and decision of the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal (NWDT) as a machinery for implementation of its directions and decision. The authority started functioning from 20th December, 1980. | … Continue reading

Posted in Accountability, Anthropology, Assimilation, Central region – Central Zonal Council, Commentary, Customs, De- and re-tribalisation, Dress and ornaments, Economy and development, Education and literacy, Figures, census and other statistics, Forest Rights Act (FRA), Government of India, Health and nutrition, History, Misconceptions, Modernity, Music and dance, Names and communities, Narmada, Nature and wildlife, Organizations, Press snippets, Quotes, Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Rural poverty, Tribal culture worldwide, Worship and rituals | Tagged , , , , | Comments Off on Memories of life in a remote Bhil hamlet on the Narmada river: “Poor but not impoverished” – Maharashtra

eBook | Harness the potential of Denotified Tribes, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes for national development: India’s labour force must be liberated from an abhorrent colonial doctrine (“criminality by birth”) – Report and Recommendations of the Technical Advisory Group

What is the “Criminal Tribes Act” all about?And what can be done to help the countless victims of stigmatization and deprivation? To learn more, read or download the full TAG report on Bhasharesearch.org >>(PDF, 361 pages including the entire text … Continue reading

Posted in Accountability, Adverse inclusion, Anthropology, Assimilation, Colonial policies, Constitution and Supreme Court, eBook eJournal PDF, Economy and development, Education and literacy, Figures, census and other statistics, Forest Rights Act (FRA), Government of India, History, Modernity, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes, Organizations, Particularly vulnerable tribal group (PVTG), Performing arts, Quotes, Resources, Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Rural poverty, Scheduled Tribe (ST) | Comments Off on eBook | Harness the potential of Denotified Tribes, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes for national development: India’s labour force must be liberated from an abhorrent colonial doctrine (“criminality by birth”) – Report and Recommendations of the Technical Advisory Group

The relevance of Gandhi’s legacy for solving modern India’s socio-economic problems: Addressing the needs of peasants, labourers, students and tribals

IS there such a thing as Gandhi’s legacy?For fifty years we have enshrined him. We must now enfranchise him again.by Gopalkrishna Gandhi [1997] IS there such a thing as Gandhi’s legacy?There is, well, the name; a legacy for some. Legacy … Continue reading

Posted in Accountability, Commentary, Community facilities, Democracy, Ecology and environment, Economy and development, Figures, census and other statistics, Gandhian social movement, Government of India, History, Misconceptions, Modernity, Narmada, Nature and wildlife, Networking, Press snippets, Rural poverty, Women | Comments Off on The relevance of Gandhi’s legacy for solving modern India’s socio-economic problems: Addressing the needs of peasants, labourers, students and tribals