Video, audio, photo content & stories | “Cover Your Country” by PARI: Rural people speak about their lives

Learn more: PARI website >>

Nayak, 75 years old, is from the Lambadi community, and his animals – like those of many cattle breeders here – are Thurupu cattle. The Lambadi (a Scheduled Tribe), the Yadava (Golla) (an OBC) and Chenchu (a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group) are traditional breeders of the Thurupu. The animals have short, sharp horns and hard, strong hooves. They move easily in different kinds of terrain – on wet as well as dry stony soil, and pull heavy loads with ease. They can also survive the region’s heat with little water for long periods of time.

Source: Sturdy cattle that sustain fragile communities: In villages near the Amrabad Tiger Reserve in Telangana, the indigenous Poda Thurupu cattle are a source of sustenance for breeder communities and farmers, and efforts are on to conserve the species
Date visited: 5 January 2020

Baskets made with a different vision
Debahala lives in Rajivnagar, a village with a population of 3,530 in Zawlnuam block of Mizoram’s Mamit district. He belongs to the Chakma community, a Scheduled Tribe, many among them practicing Buddhists, whose primary occupation is farming.
Learn more about this community here >>
Enjoy more PARI reports on the culture of Adivasi communities across India >>

Rural India’s diversity is well known. Yet the fact that more than 833 million people live in India’s villages, speak over 780 languages, and use 86 different scripts should make us pause to consider the cultural vastness of an India we urbanites know so little about. As the Magsaysay award winner and India’s best-known rural journalist, P. Sainath, has emphasized, media attention in India is almost exclusively focused on its metro cities. […]

When stories about rural areas are featured, their content is rarely about rural people. The ‘countryside’ is covered when there is a large-scale catastrophe; even then, the event is grossly under-reported. It is also written about during the elections, when the rural vote is considered important in terms of a party’s winning or losing seats. For the most part, it seems, we know little of and care less about rural people, their lives, and the challenges they face.

An ambitious effort, the People’s Archive of Rural India (PARI –, was launched in December 2014. It has built a “fantastic, dedicated platform to capture the most complex place on Earth”. PARI allows us to hear directly from rural people about the many facets of their lives – their languages, their culture, work, traditions, access to schools, hospitals and other facilities, and the skills they possess – many of which are rapidly disappearing. PARI is unlike the ethnographical or anthropological accounts we have learned from so far; the visitor to this digital archive sees rural people and often hears directly from them about their lives in their own idiom and language. The site also has information about rural India from others engaged with this sector.

PARI is an independent entity and does not rely on corporate or governmental support. Over 1,700 volunteers across the nation – photographers, techies, journalists, academics and translators – have come forward to create this platform. Through its photos, narratives, film, and audio materials, we hear rural people speak about various aspects of their lives. Their narratives are supplemented by selected secondary sources about rural India. For instance, with a click of the mouse, one can read the government’s national food security bill of 2013 or a report on mining in Jharkhand, Odisha, and Chhattisgarh by the Panos Institute.

This technically sophisticated platform enables one to gain insights into the collective experiences of rural people without collapsing the individual experience. For example, the diversity of India is captured in the section titled “Faces”. Students of journalism and mass communication at Santiniketan have contributed some of the most arresting photos to this section, which seeks to facially map India. Thus, the engaged viewer can experience the archive at the individual and community levels to visualize the broad contours of the diversity of rural India.

There are photo essays about a plethora of interesting subjects such as the devotion and painful perforation of the Bauris of Purulia during the Gajan festival. Madhabi Maity writes about and has incredible photos of this particular form of Shiva worship. She explains how these “despised and discriminated-against” members of a lower caste earn social respect by displaying their ability to endure unimaginable pain through body piercings during devotional services.
One can view video clips or the ‘talking albums’ of a diverse, multilingual array of rural people. There are several films and articles on weaving; the documentary, Weaves of Maheshwar, received a national film award this year.

There is a film on the potters of Bankura at, where we meet Buddhadeb Kumbhakar, a third-generation potter from Panchmura. We get a sense of the time and skill it takes to make the famous terracotta horses that are marketed in Calcutta. Some of PARI’s articles have been translated into 10 languages. Its being multi-authored encourages this site’s viewers to engage with a very complex reality. Another moving and recent report from Bengal speaks of the difficulties faced by pregnant women in accessing healthcare. It may be accessed at

India’s urban population comprised 17 per cent of the total population in 1951; this is expected to rise to 42.5 per cent of the total population by 2025. As poverty is concentrated in rural India, large numbers of its young people are moving away to the towns and cities as there are fewer employment opportunities in the countryside. Farming is also in a crisis. These shifts in population have resulted in the disappearance of many traditional skills, languages, and occupations. PARI is recording these skills and languages that are now only practised and spoken in rural India.

Over the past 50 years, 220 of India’s languages have ceased to exist. Tripura’s Saimar has just seven surviving speakers. Since language embodies and is a descriptor of a culture, its loss is significant on many levels. Toddy-tapping was once a regular feature of rural life, yet today in many parts of rural India, it is increasingly difficult to find a toddy-tapper. Such a man can climb up to 50 palm trees a day, each one three times during the season. Either palm jaggery or toddy is made from the sap. “In peak season, a toddy-tapper climbs a height greater than New York’s Empire State Building – every single day.” There are others – potters, metal workers, and other skilled craftspeople – who are also rapidly losing their livelihood.

PARI is not only archiving invaluable materials about rural India, but also developing a cadre of knowledgeable reporters who can report from rural India about its realities. This digital archive has already received some significant awards for its work, including the Praful Bidwai Memorial Award (June, 2016). PARI seeks to “continue its efforts to push the borders of digital multimedia and take journalism, arts, crafts, and literature out of the hands of corporations and hand it back to people.” It will strengthen its efforts to have subalterns speak for themselves; for instance, adivasi women shoot their own videos that are posted on the site. Indeed, PARI has been described as “a Smithsonian from down up”.

It has just launched “Cover Your Country”, and is determined to report stories from all of India’s 95 regions; the mainstream media today covers just seven or eight of these regions. Over the next five years, PARI seeks to place 100 Fellows, one in each of these regions; 12 of them are already in place. These Fellows would be representative of India’s ethnic, caste, and gender composition. Each has the mandate to live in and report from the region concerned on ordinary, everyday issues for at least three months of each year. PARI’s founder, Sainath, explains the magnitude of the project: “It will be the largest exercise in journalist coverage ever undertaken with data, images, and representation from every region of this country.” Its sheer complexity is staggering. PARI’s influence on journalism in India is a work in progress.

Source: “Voices from the countryside” by Jael Silliman, The Telegraph (Calcutta), 12 November 2016
Date Visited: 9 May 2020

India’s property market has never been this diverse, offering sky condos, green villas and smart farmhouses, by architects and developers focusing on eco-friendly projects to appeal to younger investors and second home owners. […]

[They] are among India’s growing tribe of uber luxury home owners who have been nudged further by the pandemic. Scenic locales, lavish homes built using traditional materials, state-of-the-art technology are just a few of the features luring them, and the tribe is only increasing.

“We mostly use natural materials such as clay roof tiles, eucalyptus poles, custom-finished granite for counters and stone deck floors, which are available locally,” says Karippaparambil. Now working on a similar project in Kabini, he adds that he’s seen an increased demand for such secluded spaces post-lockdown. […]

So what are the non-negotiable eco features in demand? Abundant natural light and ventilation tops the list […]

With India having the highest strength of young individuals in their early 30s, he says many are looking up luxury properties and wanting to invest in a home. “Millennials have a high value for privacy and security, hence they are consequently looking for luxury homes as first homes offering a comfortable lifestyle.” […]

Source: “A home in the sky” on millennial investors and second home owners who “yearn for the connection to Nature” by Nidhi Adlakha (The Hindu, 9 July 2022)
Date Visited: 12 July 2022

[Bold typeface added above for emphasis]

“The natural wealth with which much of tribal India is endowed is also its bane. […] The Adivasi is wedged between the state programme for development, meaning mines, dams, steel plants and roads, and a private agenda for quick money, which is currently termed ‘real estate’.” – Madhu Ramnath, Preface for Woodsmoke and Leafcups >>

Up-to-date reports by Indian journalists and commentators

To search Indian periodicals, magazines, web portals and other sources safely, click here. To find an Indian PhD thesis on a particular tribal community, region and related issues, click here >>

Search tips

Combine the name of any particular state, language or region with that of any tribal (Adivasi) community.

Add keywords of special interest (health, nutrition endangered language, illegal mining, sacred grove); learn about the rights of Scheduled Tribes such as the “Forest Rights Act” (FRA); and the United Nations “Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples”, “Universal Declaration of Human Rights”, “women’s rights”, or “children’s right to education”.

Specify any other issue or news item you want to learn more about (biodiversity, bonded labour and human trafficking, climate change, ecology, economic development, ethnobotany, ethnomedicine, global warming, Himalayan tribe, hunter-gatherers in a particular region or state, prevention of rural poverty, water access).

For official figures include “scheduled tribe ST” along with a union state or region: e.g. “Chhattisgarh ST community”, “Scheduled tribe Tamil Nadu census”, “ST Kerala census”, “Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group Jharkhand”, “PVTG Rajasthan”, “Adivasi ST Kerala”, “Adibasi ST West Bengal” etc.

In case the Google Custom Search window is not displayed here try the following: (1) toggle between “Reader” and regular viewing; (2) in your browser’s Security settings select “Enable JavaScript” | More tips >>

See also

CBC Unreserved (Canada) radio space for indigenous community, culture, and conversation

Eco tourism | Tourism

eJournals, eBooks & reports

eLearning: Center for World Indigenous Studies

Gandhian social movement

Indigenous people are at the forefront of the struggle to save the planet

Internet Archive |

Journalism | Media portrayal

NGO | Organizations

People’s Archive of Rural India (PARI) |

Storytelling | Success stories

Tribal/indigenous culture worldwide

Video resources – external