Landless Kol tribe forest dwellers: Permission required to plant or use trees such as neem, amla and mahua – Uttar Pradesh

Though the Kols are anthropologically tribal, they are recognized as a Scheduled Caste in Uttar Pradesh. Not only has this deprived them of their traditional source of living-the forest, it has largely left them dependant and landless, languishing in silica quarries and sand mines.

The Kols mainly inhabit the backward Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand regions bordering Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, in the districts of Allahabad, Banda, Chitrakoot, Mirzapur, Sonbhadra, Satna and Rewa. They are divided into exogamous clans-but have similar work patterns, and are patriarchal with traditional patrilocal residence. In Madhya Pradesh, they are accorded tribal status. A Kol development agency was formed last year to ensure their extensive development spinning around better education, housing, community shed, health examination, employment and forest produce-based programmes.

In UP, however, they remain untouched by any government schemes, even though they share the forests with Kols of MP. […]

Landless and dismayed by the rocky terrain- that makes cultivation difficult- the Kols settle down close to silica mines, crushing stones for much of the day and bearing a nomadic existence. Over the years, a large number have contracted lung diseases like silicosis and tuberculosis. […]

In 2010, there were reports that Kol children were eating mud out of hunger in the Shankargarh block, subsequently leading to a Supreme Court enquiry. […]

In most cases, the landlords provide the Kols space to work and live, and in return deduct portions from their silica mining. Kol women are also invited to serve as domestic help for no or minimum remuneration. They often endure the most of police apathy, with reports of them facing sexual harassment and violence going unheard or unreported. […]

However, the Kol’s most grim concern remains the forest department’s restrictions on the use of forest produce. Generally, they require permission to plant or use trees such as neem, amla and mahua. The Kols complain that they face harassment from the authorities even if they collect the twigs and barks and sell them. According to Amarnath Kol, who works with a local Kol organization, at least eight Kols have been booked by the forest department for carrying wood for sale. […]

If the forest lands are rightly returned to the adivasis, they can make a living without depending on the dalals,” Amarnath says.

In comparison, in Bara tehsil, a fraction of the population has benefitted under the Indira Awaas Yojna, with Kols acquiring jobs in the city as drivers, guards and construction labourers. They have been assimilated into the urban population.

Today, Kols are mostly followers of Hinduism. They claim their descent from Shabari, who in the forests of modern day Chhattisgarh fed berries to Lord Ram and Lord Lakshman during their exile. As the legend suggests, the Kols have a close relationship with the forest.

This bond was disrupted in the 19th century by the British East India Company, which indulged in deforestation and introduced zamindari to extract revenue from their forests lands. The Kols protested violently, in what is known as the Kol Rebellion (1831-32), where a British Major is said to have noted their “courage and daring.”

For the Kols, the difficulty lies in the implementation of the Forests Rights Act. Under the Act, other forest dwelling communities who are not Scheduled Tribes will have to furnish proof of their presence in the forest for 75 years. Those recognized as tribal are free from this burden of proof of residence.

The contending question is: How can they produce proof of 75 years of residence when they have no residential rights and live like nomads?

The forest ranger’s office was closed. When forest officials in Allahabad were approached, they said the Kols had no claim to the forest produce. […]

With just over a percent of the state’s SC population, the Kols have rarely got representation in the state assemblies and remain out of the scope of parliamentary politics. They have also not been able to organize a sustained movement for their demands. Inspired by the Gujjar community’s movement for tribal status in Rajasthan, in recent years, students and professionals from the community gathered support to rally Kols under the Kol Adivasi Vikas Samiti. It, however, could never gain momentum and is today virtually stagnant. […]

The majority of Kols are forest dwellers, so any movement without forest rights is futile,” said Bhimlal Kol, a student associated with the organization.

Source: “Kols in UP: A life without rights” by Omar Rashid, The Hindu, Allahabad, 10 April 2013
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See also

Adverse inclusion | Casteism | Rural poverty


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Demographic Status of Scheduled Tribe Population of India (Census figures 2011)

Denotified Tribes, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes – Report and Recommendations (Technical Advisory Group)

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“What is the Forest Rights Act about?” – Campaign for Survival and Dignity

“Who are Scheduled Tribes?” – Government of India (National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, NCST)

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