Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.
The origins of the nearly one billion people inhabiting the Indian subcontinent and following the customs of the Hindu caste system are controversial: are they largely derived from Indian local populations (i.e. tribal groups) or from recent immigrants to India? Archaeological and linguistic evidence support the latter hypothesis, whereas recent genetic data seem to favor the former hypothesis. Here, we analyze the most extensive dataset of Indian caste and tribal Y chromosomes to date. We find that caste and tribal groups differ significantly in their haplogroup frequency distributions; caste groups are homogeneous for Y chromosome variation and more closely related to each other and to central Asian groups than to Indian tribal or any other Eurasian groups.
We conclude that paternal lineages of Indian caste groups are primarily descended from Indo-European speakers who migrated from central Asia approximately 3,500 years ago. Conversely, paternal lineages of tribal groups are predominantly derived from the original Indian gene pool. We also provide evidence for bidirectional male gene flow between caste and tribal groups. In comparison, caste and tribal groups are homogeneous with respect to mitochondrial DNA variation, which may reflect the sociocultural characteristics of the Indian caste society.
Source: Papers: tribal
Address : https://lib.bioinfo.pl/find?field=Papers&query=tribal
Date Visited: Sat Jul 16 2011 20:46:40 GMT+0200 (CEST)
[Bold typeface added above for emphasis]
is a non-for-profit research and development (R&D) organization. Our mission is to create, inspire and incubate innovative ideas in life-sciences. We also promote and facilitate unrestricted and effective research of excellent young Polish scientists. The results of our work are worldwide innovative technological and biomedical solutions. Some of them are converted into commercial projects that can be disseminated across the BioInfoBank network and developed through a spin-off program. The institute is not only involved in research but also initiates the commercial exploitation of scientific discoveries.
Source: BioInfoBank Institute
Date visited: 9 February 2020
Research the above issues with the help of Shodhganga: A reservoir of theses from universities all over India, made available under Open Access >>
Publications on the above issues may be found here (title descriptions and libraries):
- A constitution which guarantees: “The State shall not discriminate against any citizen”
- Colonial policies
- Constitution and Supreme Court
- Education and literacy
- Gandhian social movement
- Jaipal Singh Munda
- Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG)
- Rights of Indigenous Peoples
- Romila Thapar
- Tagore and rural culture
- “Time now to undo the historical injustice” in accordance with the United Nations’ Rights of Indigenous Peoples: New column by Adivasi publicist Ruby Hembrom – The New Indian Express
Explore India’s tribal cultural heritage with the help of several interactive maps, specially created for visitors to this website:
- An alphabetical journey across India
- A virtual journey across India
- A virtual journey across time and space
- Locations for video documentaries and references to external media contents
- Places associated with press reports and blogs devoted to India’s tribal cultural heritage
- PVTG – Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups listed by the Government of India
- Seven Sister States of northeastern India
- Visit a museum collection in India