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Introduction | To read the full document published by the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, click here >>
Primitive, geographically isolated, shy and socially, educationally & economically backwardness these are the traits that distinguish Scheduled Tribes of our country from other communities. Tribal communities live in about 15% of the country’s areas in various ecological and geo-climatic conditions ranging from plains to forests, hills and inaccessible areas. Tribal groups are at different stages of social, economic and educational development. While some tribal communities have adopted a mainstream way of life at one end of the spectrum, there are 75 Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs), at the other, who are characterized by (a) a pre-agriculture level of technology, (b) a stagnant or declining population (c ) extremely low literacy and (d) a subsistence level of economy. There are over 500 tribes (with many overlapping communities in more than one State) as notified under article 342 of the Constitution of India, spread over different States and Union Territories of the country, the largest number of tribal communities being in the State of Orissa. The main concentration of tribal population is in central India and in the North- eastern States. However, they have their presence in all States and Union Territories except Hayrana, Punjab, Delhi, Pondicherry and Chandigarh.
The predominantly tribal populated States of the country (tribal population more than 50% of the total population) are: Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Union Territories of Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Lakshadweep. States with sizeable tribal population and having areas of large tribal concentration are A.P. Assam, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa and Rajasthan.
Promotion of all round development of tribals inhabiting the length and breath of our country has received priority attention of the government. There are numerous government policies for ensuring the welfare and well being of tribals. The Govts. at State as well as Central levels have made sustained efforts to provide opportunity to these communities for their economic development by eradicating poverty and health problems and developing communication for removal of isolation of their habitats. The Constitution of India seeks to secure for all its citizens, among other things, social and economic justice, equality of status and opportunity and assures the dignity of the individual. The Constitution further provides social, economic and political guarantees to the disadvantaged sections of people. Some provisions are specific to both Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and some are specific to only Scheduled Tribes. These are: […]
In pursuance of the enabling provisions mentioned […]
(i)The State legislation should be in tune with the customary law, social and religious practices and traditional management practices of community resources. (ii) Every Gram Sabha should be competent to safeguard and preserve the traditions and customs of the people, their cultural identity, community resources and customary mode of disputes resolution. […]
Source: National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, Microsoft Word – Copy_2 of_Annual_Report__Eco.Dev_of_STs_.doc – File415.pdf
Date visited: 26 June 2019
Shiv Sahay Singh, The Hindu, April 08, 2017 | To read the full document, click here >>
A recent Anthropological Survey of India (AnSI) publication has brought to the fore startling revelations about the Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) in the country including the fact that no base line surveys have been conducted among more than half of such groups.
“Our findings revealed shocking facts, of the 75 PVTGs, base line surveys exists for about 40 groups, even after declaring them as PVTGs,” states the publication: The Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups of India — Privileges and Predicaments.
Base line surveys are done to precisely identify the PVTG families, their habitat and socio-economic status, so that development initiatives are implemented for these communities, based on the facts and figures. The publication emphasises State governments must urgently conduct such surveys to arrive at accurate demographic and socio-economic figures of the PVTGs.
Among the 75 listed PVTG’s the highest number are found in Odisha (13), followed by Andhra Pradesh (12), Bihar including Jharkhand (9) Madhya Pradesh including Chhattisgarh (7) Tamil Nadu (6) Kerala and Gujarat having five groups each. The remaining PVTGs live in West Bengal (3) Maharashtra (3), two each in Karnataka and Uttarakhand and one each in Rajasthan, Tripura and Manipur. All the four tribal groups in Andamans, and one in Nicobar Islands, are recognised as PVTGs. […]
There is a huge variation in the number of PVTGs ranging from a few individuals as in case of Great Andamanese, Onge and Sentinelese and about a little more than a thousand people as in the case of Toda of Nilgiris. Although PVTGs are slowly witnessing decadal increase in their population, quite a few still face stagnation such as the Birhor in central India. Some are declining like the Onge and Andamanese.
Smallest population size among the PVTGs are the Senteneles (as per the last contact effort on March 9, 2005, groups of 32 and 13 persons were sighted at different places). They still shy away from others. The Great Andamanese (57 persons) and the Onge (107 persons in 2012 as per Andaman Adim Janjati Vikas Samiti) are the dwindling populations. In main land, the Toto of West Bengal (314 families with 1,387 persons as per 2011 census) and the Toda of Tamil Nadu (1,608, inclusive of 238 Christian Todas as per TRC, Udagamandalam [Ooty], 2011)) have population less than 2000 persons. The Saharia people of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan are the largest among the PVTGs with population more than 4 lakhs. […]
Source: Vulnerable tribes: lost in a classification trap – The Hindu
Date visited: 26 June 2019
[Bold typeface added above for emphasis]
Research the above issues with the help of Shodhganga: A reservoir of theses from universities all over India, made available under Open Access >>
A constitution which guarantees: “The State shall not discriminate against any citizen” – The Sovereign Republic of India | Learn more >>
NAME OF THE PARTICULARLY VULNERABLE TRIBAL GROUPS (PTGs) (EARLIER CALLED AS PRIMITIVE TRIBAL GROUPS) – STATE / UT WISE
[UT = Union Territories].
1. Andhra Pradesh
1. Bodo Gadaba
2. Bondo Poroja
4. Dongria Khond
6. Khond Poroja
9. Konda Savaras
10. Kutia Khond
11. Parengi Poroja
2. Bihar (including Jharkhand)
16. Hill Kharia
18. Mal Paharia
20. Sauria Paharia
27. Jenu Kuruba
29. Cholanaikayan (a section of Kattunaickans)
6. Madhya Pradesh (including Chhattisgarh)
34. Abujh Marias
37. Hill Korbas
41. Katkaria (Kathodia)
43. Maria Gond
44. Marram Nagas
51. Kutia Kondh
52. Lanjia Sauras
55. Paudi Bhuyans
57. Chuktia Bhunjia
58. Seharias [Sahariya]
11. Tamil Nadu
59. Kattu Nayakans
13. Uttar Pradesh (including Uttarakhand)
14. West Bengal
15. Andaman & Nicobar Islands
71. Great Andamanese
75. Shom Pens
Source: National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, StatewisePTGsList from MTA.pdf
Date visited: 26 June 2019
- Type specific keywords (e.g. “particularly vulnerable tribal group”, “Onge”, “Scheduled Tribes”) in combination with a particular State (e.g. “Odisha”) or Union territory (“Andaman”) in the search window here: Google custom search – Indian press coverage of tribal culture and education >>
- Do the same here: Govt. of India, NGOs and international organisations >>
- Use the WorldCat.org search field seen here for authors or titles dealing with the above mentioned issues:
Up-to-date reports in the Indian press | More search options >>
For recent reports on India’s tribal cultural heritage, search select periodicals in the above search window; a list of Indian periodicals included in your present custom search is found here. | To also search Indian magazines and web portals, click here >>
- Anthropological Survey
- Constitution and Supreme Court
- Endangered language (Category)
- Government of India
- Health and nutrition
- Languages and linguistic heritage
- Particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTG)
- Rights of Indigenous Peoples
- Scheduled Tribes
- “Who are Scheduled Tribes?”: Clarifications by the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes – Government of India