Map | Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups & Endangered languages

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“We shall first have to give up this hubris of considering tribes backward. Every tribe has a rich and living cultural tradition and we must respect them.”

Vice President M. Venkaiah Naidu on India’s Constitutional obligation to respect their cultural traditions
Gandhiji at Prayer Time, Parnakuti, Poona (1944) by Chittaprosad, the great advocate of the rights of workers and revolutionary artists. | Learn more in “Gandhi, Secularism, and Cultural Democracy” by Vinay Lal >>
Gandhian social movement | Constitution >>

“Air is free to all but if it is polluted it harms our health… Next comes water… From now on we must take up the effort to secure water. Councillors are servants of the people and we have a right to question them.” – Mohandas K. Gandhi, Ahmedabad address on 1 January 1918; quoted by his grandson, Gopalkrishna Gandhi, in “On another New Year’s Day: Mahatma Gandhi’s ‘khorak’ a 100 years ago” (The Hindu, 1 January 2018)

Casteism is the investment in keeping the hierarchy as it is in order to maintain your own ranking, advantage, privilege, or to elevate yourself above others or keep others beneath you.” – Book review quoting Caste: The Origins of Our Discontents by Isabel Wilkerson | Learn more >>

“Cover Your Country” by PARI: Rural people speak about their lives through photos, narratives, film, and audio materials | RuralIndiaOnline.org >>

“Our findings revealed shocking facts, of the 75 PVTGs, base line surveys exists for about 40 groups, even after declaring them as PVTGs,” states the publication: The Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups of India — Privileges and Predicaments.

Base line surveys are done to precisely identify the PVTG families, their habitat and socio-economic status, so that development initiatives are implemented for these communities, based on the facts and figures. The publication emphasises State governments must urgently conduct such surveys to arrive at accurate demographic and socio-economic figures of the PVTGs.

Among the 75 listed PVTG’s the highest number are found in Odisha (13), followed by Andhra Pradesh (12), Bihar including Jharkhand (9) Madhya Pradesh including Chhattisgarh (7) Tamil Nadu (6) Kerala and Gujarat having five groups each. The remaining PVTGs live in West Bengal (3) Maharashtra (3), two each in Karnataka and Uttarakhand and one each in Rajasthan, Tripura and Manipur. All the four tribal groups in Andamans, and one in Nicobar Islands, are recognised as PVTGs. […]

There is a huge variation in the number of PVTGs ranging from a few individuals as in case of Great Andamanese, Onge and Sentinelese and about a little more than a thousand people as in the case of Toda of Nilgiris. Although PVTGs are slowly witnessing decadal increase in their population, quite a few still face stagnation such as the Birhor in central India. Some are declining like the Onge and Andamanese.

Smallest population size among the PVTGs are the Senteneles (as per the last contact effort on March 9, 2005, groups of 32 and 13 persons were sighted at different places). They still shy away from others. The Great Andamanese (57 persons) and the Onge (107 persons in 2012 as per Andaman Adim Janjati Vikas Samiti) are the dwindling populations. In main land, the Toto of West Bengal (314 families with 1,387 persons as per 2011 census) and the Toda of Tamil Nadu (1,608, inclusive of 238 Christian Todas as per TRC, Udagamandalam [Ooty], 2011)) have population less than 2000 persons. The Saharia people of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan are the largest among the PVTGs with population more than 4 lakhs. […]

Source: “Vulnerable tribes: lost in a classification trap” by Shiv Sahay Singh, (The Hindu, 8 April 2017)
Address: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/vulnerable-tribes-lost-in-a-classification-trap/article17894997.ece
Date visited: 18 September 2021

NAME OF THE PARTICULARLY VULNERABLE TRIBAL GROUPS (PTGs) (EARLIER CALLED AS PRIMITIVE TRIBAL GROUPS) – STATE / UT WISE
[UT = Union Territories].
 
1. Andhra Pradesh
1. Bodo Gadaba
2. Bondo Poroja
3. Chenchu
4. Dongria Khond
5. Gutob
Gadaba
6. Khond Poroja
7. Kolam
8. Kondareddis
9. Konda Savaras
10. Kutia Khond
11. Parengi Poroja
12. Thoti
 
2. Bihar (including Jharkhand)
13. Asurs
14. Birhor
15. Birjia
16. Hill Kharia
17. Korwas
18. Mal Paharia
19. Parhaiyas
20. Sauria Paharia
21. Savar
 
3. Gujarat
22. Kathodi
23. Kotwalia
24. Padhar
25. Siddi
26. Kolgha
 
4. Karnataka
27. Jenu Kuruba
28. Koraga
 
5. Kerala
29. Cholanaikayan (a section of Kattunaickans)
30. Kadar
31. Kattunayakan
32. Kurumbas
33. Koraga
 
6. Madhya Pradesh (including Chhattisgarh)
34. Abujh Marias
35. Baigas
36. Bharias
37. Hill Korbas
38. Kamars
39. Saharias
40. Birhor
 
7. Maharashtra
41. Katkaria (Kathodia)
42. Kolam
43. Maria Gond
 
8. Manipur
44. Marram Nagas
 
9. Orissa
45. Birhor
46. Bondo
47. Didayi
48. Dongria-Khond
49. Juangs
50. Kharias
51. Kutia Kondh
52. Lanjia Sauras
53. Lodhas
54. Mankidias
55. Paudi Bhuyans
56. Soura
57. Chuktia Bhunjia
 
10. Rajasthan
58. Seharias [Sahariya]
 
11. Tamil Nadu
59. Kattu Nayakans
60. Kotas
61. Kurumbas
62. Irulas
63. Paniyans
64. Todas
 
12. Tripura
65. Reangs
 
13. Uttar Pradesh (including Uttarakhand)
66. Buxas
67. Rajis
 
14. West Bengal
68. Birhor
69. Lodhas
70. Totos
 
15. Andaman & Nicobar Islands
71. Great Andamanese
72. Jarawas
73. Onges
74. Sentinelese
75. Shom Pens

Source: State/UT wise population of STs and their percentage to the total population in the respective states/UTs and to the total STs population in the Country,  as per Census 2001 | National Commission for Scheduled Tribes
Address: https://www.ncst.gov.in/content/stateut-wise-population-sts-and-their-percentage-total-population-respective-statesuts-and
Date Visited: 30 July 2021
Backup file dated 6 April 2017 (PDF, 19 KB)

See also

A constitution which guarantees: “The State shall not discriminate against any citizen” – The Sovereign Republic of India | Learn more >>

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